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freebsd:zfs

ZFS

The system is ported in two steps, first step is to generate the first disk and copy the data to this disk, the second step is to add the second disk and start the restore of the raid 1.

ZFS Swap

zfs create -V 1G -o org.freebsd:swap=on \
                   -o checksum=off \
                   -o sync=disabled \
                   -o primarycache=none \
                   -o secondarycache=none zroot/swap
swapon /dev/zvol/zroot/swap

Install FreeBSD 9.2 with ZFS Root

To really use ZFS it is recommended to install a AMD64 environment, so boot from DVD and select bsdinstall at partition tool select shell.

Zero your new drive to destroy any existing container:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ada0
  * cancel it after some seconds*

We will use GPT to boot so we create at first these volumes:

gpart create -s gpt ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 64K -t freebsd-boot -l boot0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 4G -t freebsd-swap -l swap0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l disk0 ada0

Install proteced MBR:

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada0

Create ZFS pool:

zpool create -f -o altroot=/mnt zroot /dev/gpt/disk0

Create the ZFS filessystem hierarchy:

zfs set checksum=fletcher4 zroot
zfs set atime=off zroot
zfs create -o mountpoint=none                                                 zroot/ROOT
zfs create -o mountpoint=/                                                    zroot/ROOT/default
zfs create -o mountpoint=/tmp -o compression=lz4   -o exec=on -o setuid=off   zroot/tmp
chmod 1777 /mnt/tmp
zfs create -o mountpoint=/usr                                                 zroot/usr
zfs create -o compression=lz4                   -o setuid=off                 zroot/usr/home
zfs create -o compression=lz4                                                 zroot/usr/local
zfs create -o compression=lz4                   -o setuid=off   zroot/usr/ports
zfs create                      -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/usr/ports/distfiles
zfs create                      -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/usr/ports/packages
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/usr/src
zfs create                                                      zroot/usr/obj
zfs create -o mountpoint=/var                                   zroot/var
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/crash
zfs create                      -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/db
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=on      -o setuid=off   zroot/var/db/pkg
zfs create                      -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/empty
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/log
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/mail
zfs create                      -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/run
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=on      -o setuid=off   zroot/var/tmp
chmod 1777 /mnt/var/tmp
exit

After the installation is finished, the installer asks you if you want to start a shell, select no here and if it asks you if you want to start a live system, select yes.

Make /var/empty readonly

zfs set readonly=on zroot/var/empty

echo 'zfs_enable="YES"' >> /mnt/etc/rc.conf

Setup the bootloader:

echo 'zfs_load="YES"' >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf
echo 'geom_mirror_load="YES"' >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf

Set the correct dataset to boot:

zpool set bootfs=zroot/ROOT/default zroot 

Reboot the system to finish the installation.

Create the swap partition:

gmirror label -b prefer swap gpt/swap0

Create the /etc/fstab

# Device                       Mountpoint              FStype  Options         Dump    Pass#
/dev/mirror/swap               none                    swap    sw              0       0

Reboot again and now the system should be up with root on zfs and swap as gmirror.

You should see the following:

zpool status
  pool: zroot
 state: ONLINE
 scrub: none requested
config:

        NAME         STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zroot        ONLINE       0     0     0
          ada0p3     ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors
gmirror status
       Name    Status  Components
mirror/swap  COMPLETE  ada0p2 (ACTIVE)

Install FreeBSD 9.0 with ZFS Root

To really use ZFS it is recommended to install a AMD64 environment, so boot from DVD and select bsdinstall at partition tool select shell.

Zero your new drive to destroy any existing container:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ada0
  * cancel it after some seconds*

We will use GPT to boot so we create at first these volumes:

gpart create -s gpt ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 64K -t freebsd-boot -l boot0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 4G -t freebsd-swap -l swap0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l disk0 ada0

Install proteced MBR:

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada0

Create ZFS pool:

zpool create -f -o altroot=/mnt zroot /dev/gpt/disk0

Create the ZFS filessystem hierarchy:

zfs set checksum=fletcher4 zroot
zfs create -o compression=lz4    -o exec=on      -o setuid=off   zroot/tmp
chmod 1777 /mnt/tmp
zfs create                                                      zroot/usr
zfs create                                                      zroot/usr/home
zfs create -o compression=lz4                                   zroot/usr/local
zfs create -o compression=lz4                   -o setuid=off   zroot/usr/ports
zfs create -o compression=off   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/usr/ports/distfiles
zfs create -o compression=off   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/usr/ports/packages
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/usr/src
zfs create                                                      zroot/var
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/crash
zfs create                      -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/db
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=on      -o setuid=off   zroot/var/db/pkg
zfs create                      -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/empty
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/log
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/mail
zfs create                      -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   zroot/var/run
zfs create -o compression=lz4   -o exec=on      -o setuid=off   zroot/var/tmp
chmod 1777 /mnt/var/tmp
exit

After the installation is finished, the installer asks you if you want to start a shell, select no here and if it asks you if you want to start a live system, select yes.

Make /var/empty readonly

zfs set readonly=on zroot/var/empty

echo 'zfs_enable="YES"' >> /mnt/etc/rc.conf

Setup the bootloader:

echo 'zfs_load="YES"' >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf
echo 'vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:zroot"' >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf
echo 'geom_mirror_load="YES"' >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf

Set the correct mount point:

zfs unmount -a
zpool export zroot
zpool import -f -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -o altroot=/mnt -d /dev/gpt zroot

zfs set mountpoint=/ zroot
cp /tmp/zpool.cache /mnt/boot/zfs/
zfs unmount -a

zpool set bootfs=zroot zroot
zpool set cachefile=// zroot
zfs set mountpoint=legacy zroot
zfs set mountpoint=/tmp zroot/tmp
zfs set mountpoint=/usr zroot/usr
zfs set mountpoint=/var zroot/var

Reboot the system to finish the installation.

Create the swap partition:

gmirror label -b prefer swap gpt/swap0

Create the /etc/fstab

# Device                       Mountpoint              FStype  Options         Dump    Pass#
/dev/mirror/swap               none                    swap    sw              0       0

Reboot again and now the system should be up with root on zfs and swap as gmirror.

You should see the following:

zpool status
  pool: zroot
 state: ONLINE
 scrub: none requested
config:

        NAME         STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zroot        ONLINE       0     0     0
          ada0p3     ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors
gmirror status
       Name    Status  Components
mirror/swap  COMPLETE  ada0p2 (ACTIVE)

Migrate UFS to ZFS

Copy Old System to ZFS

cd /zroot
rsync -av /etc /zroot/
rsync -av /usr/local/etc /zroot/usr/local/
rsync -av /var/amavis /zroot/var/
rsync -av /var/db/DAV /var/db/clamav /var/db/dhcpd.* /var/db/mysql /var/db/openldap-data /var/db/openldap-data.backup /zroot/var/db/
rsync -av /var/log /zroot/var/
rsync -av /var/spool /var/named /zroot/var/
rsync -av /usr/home /zroot/usr/
rsync -av /root /zroot/
rsync -av /usr/src/sys/i386/conf /zroot/usr/src/sys/i386/
rsync -av /usr/local/backup /usr/local/backup_rsync /usr/local/cvs /usr/local/dbdump /usr/local/faxscripts /zroot/usr/local/
rsync -av /usr/local/firewall /usr/local/pgsql /usr/local/cvs /usr/local/psybnc /usr/local/router /zroot/usr/local/
rsync -av /usr/local/squirrelmail_data /usr/local/src /usr/local/ssl /usr/local/svn /usr/local/tftp /zroot/usr/local/
rsync -av /usr/local/var /usr/local/video /usr/local/www /usr/local/idisk /zroot/usr/local/
rsync -av /usr/local/bin/printfax.pl /usr/local/bin/grepm /usr/local/bin/block_ssh_bruteforce /usr/local/bin/learn.sh /zroot/usr/local/bin/
mkdir -p /zroot/usr/local/libexec/cups/
rsync -av /usr/local/libexec/cups/backend /zroot/usr/local/libexec/cups/
rsync -av /usr/local/share/asterisk /zroot/usr/local/share/
rsync -av /usr/local/libexec/mutt_ldap_query /zroot/usr/local/libexec/
rsync -av /usr/local/lib/fax /zroot/usr/local/lib/
mkdir -p /zroot/usr/local/libexec/nagios/
rsync -av /usr/local/libexec/nagios/check_zfs /usr/local/libexec/nagios/check_gmirror.pl /zroot/usr/local/libexec/nagios/

Check your /etc/fstab, /etc/src.conf and /boot/loader.conf after this and adapt it like described above.

Install Software

portsnap fetch
portsnap extract
cd /usr/ports/lang/perl5.10 && make install && make clean
cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portupgrade && make install && make clean
portinstall bash zsh screen sudo radvd
portinstall sixxs-aiccu security/openvpn quagga isc-dhcp30-server
portinstall cyrus-sasl2 mail/postfix clamav amavisd-new fetchmail dovecot-sieve imapfilter p5-Mail-SPF p5-Mail-SpamAssassin procmail
portinstall databases/mysql51-server net/openldap24-server databases/postgresql84-server mysql++-mysql51
portinstall asterisk asterisk-addons asterisk-app-ldap
portinstall www/apache22 phpMyAdmin phppgadmin mod_perl2 mod_security www/mediawiki smarty
portinstall pear-Console_Getargs pear-DB pear-Net_Socket pear php5-extensions squirrelmail squirrelmail-avelsieve-plugin

portinstall munin-main munin-node net-mgmt/nagios nagios-check_ports nagios-plugins nagios-spamd-plugin logcheck nrpe
portinstall portmaster portaudit portdowngrade smartmontools
portinstall awstats webalizer
portinstall bazaar-ng subversion git
portinstall rsync ipcalc doxygen john security/gnupg nmap unison wol mutt-devel wget miniupnpd

portinstall editors/emacs jed
portinstall www/tomcat6 hudson
portinstall cups
portinstall squid adzap
portinstall samba
portinstall net-snmp
portinstall teamspeak_server
portinstall scponly

Attach all Disk and Restore them

Insert now the second disk (in my case ada1). We use GPT on the second disk too:

gpart create -s gpt ada1
gpart add -a 4k -s 64K -t freebsd-boot -l boot1 !$
gpart add -a 4k -s 4G -t freebsd-swap -l swap1 !$
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l disk1 !$

Install MBR:

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 !$

Create swap:

gmirror insert swap gpt/swap1

While rebuilding it will show:

gmirror status
       Name    Status  Components
mirror/swap  DEGRADED  ad4p2
                       ad6p2 (48%)

After it is finished:

 gmirror status
       Name    Status  Components
mirror/swap  COMPLETE  ad4p2
                       ad6p2

Create the zfs mirror:

zpool attach zroot gpt/disk0 gpt/disk1

It will resilver now the data:

zpool status
  pool: zroot
 state: ONLINE
status: One or more devices is currently being resilvered.  The pool will
        continue to function, possibly in a degraded state.
action: Wait for the resilver to complete.
 scrub: resilver in progress for 0h1m, 0.49% done, 4h1m to go
config:

        NAME           STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zroot          ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror       ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/disk0  ONLINE       0     0     0  12.4M resilvered
            gpt/disk1  ONLINE       0     0     0  768M resilvered

errors: No known data errors

After the pool in online it shows:

zpool status
<code>
  pool: zroot
 state: ONLINE
 scrub: resilver completed after 0h51m with 0 errors on Sat Jan 16 18:27:08 2010
config:

        NAME           STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zroot          ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror       ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/disk0  ONLINE       0     0     0  383M resilvered
            gpt/disk1  ONLINE       0     0     0  152G resilvered

errors: No known data errors

Upgrade ZFS to New Version

Upgrade ZFS to a new version is done in two steps.

Upgrade the ZFS is done by:

zpool upgrade zroot
zfs upgrade zroot

Now we have to upgrade the GPT bootloader, if you forget this step you will not be able to mount the ZFS anymore! The system will hang before the FreeBSD bootloader can be loaded.

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada1
gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada2

Create a Networkshare

To use the zfs as a storage in your network create a new folder:

zfs create -o compression=on -o exec=off -o setuid=off zroot/netshare

Now we define the mountpoint:

zfs set mountpoint=/netshare zroot/netshare

Set up network sharing:

zfs set sharenfs="-mapall=idefix -network=192.168.0/24" zroot/netshare

Replace a failed disk

We have here two cases, the disk begins to make problems but works. This is a really good time to replace it, before it fails completely. You will get the information using smart or ZFS complains about it like:

  pool: tank
 state: ONLINE
status: One or more devices has experienced an unrecoverable error.  An
        attempt was made to correct the error.  Applications are unaffected.
action: Determine if the device needs to be replaced, and clear the errors
        using 'zpool clear' or replace the device with 'zpool replace'.
   see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-9P
  scan: scrub repaired 0 in 14h8m with 0 errors on Sat Aug  8 23:48:13 2015
config:

        NAME                               STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        tank                               ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0                         ONLINE       0   174     0
            diskid/DISK-S2H7J9DZC00380p2   ONLINE       0   181     0
            diskid/DISK-WD-WCC4M2656260p2  ONLINE       4   762     0

errors: No known data errors

In this case drive diskid/DISK-WD-WCC4M2656260p2 seems to have a problem (located /dev/diskid/DISK-WD-WCC4M2656260p2).

Identify the disk

Find the disk with the commands:

zpool status -v
gpart list

To identify using the LED of the disk you can use a command like this:

dd if=/dev/diskid/DISK-WD-WCC4M2656260 of=/dev/null
dd if=/dev/gpt/storage0 of=/dev/null

Take the disk offline

Before we continue we should remove the disk from the pool.

zpool detach tank /dev/diskid/DISK-WD-WCC4M2656260

Check that the disk was removed successfully:

zpool status
  pool: tank
 state: ONLINE
status: One or more devices has experienced an unrecoverable error.  An
        attempt was made to correct the error.  Applications are unaffected.
action: Determine if the device needs to be replaced, and clear the errors
        using 'zpool clear' or replace the device with 'zpool replace'.
   see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-9P
  scan: scrub repaired 0 in 14h8m with 0 errors on Sat Aug  8 23:48:13 2015
config:
 
        NAME                            STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        tank                            ONLINE       0     0     0
          diskid/DISK-S2H7J9DZC00380p2  ONLINE       0   181     0
 
errors: No known data errors
 
  pool: zstorage
 state: ONLINE
  scan: resilvered 56K in 0h0m with 0 errors on Tue Oct  7 00:11:31 2014
config:
 
        NAME              STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zstorage          ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz1-0        ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/storage0  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/storage1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/storage2  ONLINE       0     0     0
 
errors: No known data errors

Remove the disk and insert a new one

After you have remove the disk physically you should see something like this:

dmesg
 
ada2 at ata5 bus 0 scbus5 target 0 lun 0
ada2: <WDC WD20EFRX-68EUZN0 80.00A80> s/n WD-WCC4M2656260 detached
(ada2:ata5:0:0:0): Periph destroyed

Now insert to new drive, you should see:

dmesg
 
ada2 at ata5 bus 0 scbus5 target 0 lun 0
ada2: <WDC WD20EFRX-68EUZN0 80.00A80> ACS-2 ATA SATA 3.x device
ada2: Serial Number WD-WCC4M3336293
ada2: 300.000MB/s transfers (SATA 2.x, UDMA5, PIO 8192bytes)
ada2: 1907729MB (3907029168 512 byte sectors: 16H 63S/T 16383C)
ada2: quirks=0x1<4K>
ada2: Previously was known as ad14

The new disk is sitting on ada2 so we can continue with this information.

Create structure

Create the structure on it with:

gpart create -s gpt ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 64K -t freebsd-boot -l boot0 !$
gpart add -a 4k -s 4G -t freebsd-swap -l swap0 !$
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l disk0 !$

Install the bootcode with:

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 !$

If you have detached the drive before, add the new one with:

zpool attach tank diskid/DISK-S2H7J9DZC00380p2 gpt/zroot1

If the drive failed and ZFS has removed it by itself:

zpool replace zroot 10290042632925356876 gpt/disk0

ZFS will now resilver all date to the added disk:

zpool status
  pool: tank
 state: ONLINE
status: One or more devices is currently being resilvered.  The pool will
        continue to function, possibly in a degraded state.
action: Wait for the resilver to complete.
  scan: resilver in progress since Sat Nov 21 12:01:49 2015
        24.9M scanned out of 1.26T at 1.31M/s, 280h55m to go
        24.6M resilvered, 0.00% done
config:
 
        NAME                              STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        tank                              ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0                        ONLINE       0     0     0
            diskid/DISK-S2H7J9DZC00380p2  ONLINE       0   181     0
            gpt/zroot1                    ONLINE       0     0     0  (resilvering)
 
errors: No known data errors

After the resilver is completed, remove the failed disk from the pool with (only necessary if you have not detached the drive):

zpool detach zroot 10290042632925356876

Rebuild the swap if you have not used the swap from the ZFS:

gmirror forget swap
gmirror insert swap gpt/swap0

Move zroot to another pool

You did a mistake and now to configuration of your pool is completely damaged? Here are the steps to repair a pool that one disk is again in the pool or if you need to restructure your ZFS.

Install a tool:

cd /usr/ports/sysutils/pv
make install

Create a partition with gpart. At first we see how the partitions look like:

gpart backup ada0
GPT 128
1   freebsd-boot       34      128 boot0 
2   freebsd-swap      162  2097152 swap0 
3    freebsd-zfs  2097314 14679869 disk0 

Use the sizes to create the new partitions on the second disk:

gpart create -s gpt ada1
gpart add -a 4k -s 128 -t freebsd-boot -l boot3 ada1
gpart add -a 4k -s 2097152 -t freebsd-swap -l swap3 ada1
gpart add -a 4k -s 14679869 -t freebsd-zfs -l disk3 ada1
gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada1

Create the new pool:

zpool create zroot2 gpt/disk3

Create a snapshot:

zfs snapshot -r zroot@snap1

Copy data from zroot to zroot2

zfs send -R zroot@snap1 |pv -i 30 | zfs receive -F -d zroot2

Now stop all service.

Create a second snapshot and copy it incremental to the second disk:

zfs snapshot -r zroot@snap2
zfs send -Ri zroot@snap1 zroot@snap2 |pv -i 30 | zfs receive -F -d zroot2

Mount and adapt some files:

zpool export zroot2
zpool import -f -o altroot=/mnt -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -d /dev/gpt zroot2
zfs set mountpoint=/mnt zroot2

edit /mnt/mnt/boot/loader.conf and modify „vfs.zfs.mountfrom=zfs:zroot“ to „zfs:zroot2“

cp /tmp/zpool.cache /mnt/mnt/boot/zfs/
zfs set mountpoint=legacy zroot2
zpool set bootfs=zroot2 zroot2

Now reboot from the second disk! The system should now boot from zroot2.

Next step is to destroy the old pool and reboot from second harddisk again to have a free gpart device:

zpool import -f -o altroot=/mnt -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache zroot
zpool destroy zroot
reboot

Create the pool and copy everything back:

zpool create zroot gpt/disk0
zpool export zroot
zpool import -f -o altroot=/mnt -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -d /dev/gpt zroot
zfs destroy -r zroot2@snap1
zfs destroy -r zroot2@snap2
zfs snapshot -r zroot2@snap1
zfs send -R zroot2@snap1 |pv -i 30 | zfs receive -F -d zroot

Stop all services

zfs snapshot -r zroot2@snap2
zfs send -Ri zroot2@snap1 zroot2@snap2 |pv -i 30 | zfs receive -F -d zroot
zfs set mountpoint=/mnt zroot

edit /mnt/mnt/boot/loader.conf and modify „vfs.zfs.mountfrom=zfs:zroot2“ to „zfs:zroot“

cp /tmp/zpool.cache /mnt/mnt/boot/zfs/
zfs set mountpoint=legacy zroot
zpool set bootfs=zroot zroot

Now reboot from the first disk! The system should now boot from zroot.

Copy pool to another computer

Make sure you can login via ssh as root to the other computer. Create filesystem and the pool on the other computer with:

sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=0x10
gpart create -s gpt ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 64K -t freebsd-boot -l boot0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 4G -t freebsd-swap -l swap0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l disk0 ada0
gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada0
zpool create -m /mnt zroot gpt/disk0

Now login into the copy you want to clone:

zfs snapshot -r zroot@snap1
zfs send -R zroot@snap1 | ssh root@62.146.43.159 "zfs recv -vFdu zroot"

Now disable all service on the sending computer and create a second snapshot:

service nagios stop
service apache22 stop
service clamav-freshclam stop
service clamav-clamd stop
service clamav-milter stop
service courier-imap-imapd stop
service courier-imap-imapd-ssl stop
service courier-imap-pop3d stop
service courier-imap-pop3d-ssl  stop
service courier-authdaemond  stop
service jetty  stop
service milter-greylist  stop
service milter-sid  stop
service munin-node  stop
service pure-ftpd  stop
service mysql-server  stop
service rsyncd  stop
service sa-spamd  stop
service saslauthd  stop
service snmpd stop
service smartd  stop
service mailman  stop
service spamass-milter  stop
service fail2ban  stop
service sendmail stop
service named stop

zfs snapshot -r zroot@snap2
zfs send -Ri zroot@snap1 zroot@snap2 | ssh root@62.146.43.159 "zfs recv -vFdu zroot"

Make the new zroot bootable, login into the cloned computer:

zpool export zroot
zpool import -o altroot=/mnt -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -d /dev/gpt zroot
zfs set mountpoint=/mnt zroot
cp /tmp/zpool.cache /mnt/mnt/boot/zfs/
zfs unmount -a
zpool set bootfs=zroot zroot
zpool set cachefile=// zroot
zfs set mountpoint=legacy zroot
zfs set mountpoint=/tmp zroot/tmp
zfs set mountpoint=/usr zroot/usr
zfs set mountpoint=/var zroot/var

Replace a Raid10 by a RaidZ1

We have a pool named zstorage with 4 harddisk running as a raid10 and we would like to replace it by a raidz1 pool. Old pool:

  pool: zstorage
 state: ONLINE
  scan: resilvered 492K in 0h0m with 0 errors on Tue Oct 21 17:52:37 2014
config:

        NAME              STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zstorage          ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0        ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/storage0  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/storage1  ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-1        ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/storage2  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/storage3  ONLINE       0     0     0

At first you would like to create the new pool. As I had not enough SATA ports on the system we connect an external USB case to the computer and placed there the 3 new harddisk in. New pool:

  pool: zstorage2
 state: ONLINE
  scan: none requested
config:

        NAME                 STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zstorage2            ONLINE       0     0     0
          raidz1-0           ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/zstoragerz0  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/zstoragerz1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/zstoragerz2  ONLINE       0     0     0

Now made a initial copy:

zfs snapshot -r zstorage@replace1
zfs send -Rv zstorage@replace1 | zfs recv -vFdu zstorage2

After the initial copy it finished we can quickly copy only the changed data:

zfs snapshot -r zstorage@replace2
zfs send -Rvi zstorage@replace1 zstorage@replace2 | zfs recv -vFdu zstorage2
zfs destroy -r zstorage@replace1
zfs snapshot -r zstorage@replace1
zfs send -Rvi zstorage@replace2 zstorage@replace1 | zfs recv -vFdu zstorage2
zfs destroy -r zstorage@replace2

After this, export the old and new pool:

zpool export zstorage
zpool export zstorage2

Now physically move the disks as required and import the new pool by renaming it:

zpool import zstorage2 zstorage

Do not forget to wipe the old disks =)

Add a second mirror to a pool

Before we have:

  pool: testing
 state: ONLINE
  scan: resilvered 21.3M in 0h0m with 0 errors on Fri Jul 26 18:08:45 2013
config:

        NAME                                 STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        testing                              ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0                           ONLINE       0     0     0
            /zstorage/storage/zfstest/disk1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /zstorage/storage/zfstest/disk2  ONLINE       0     0     0  (resilvering)
zpool add <poolname> mirror <disk3> <disk4>

Now we have:

        NAME                                 STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        testing                              ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0                           ONLINE       0     0     0
            /zstorage/storage/zfstest/disk1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /zstorage/storage/zfstest/disk2  ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-1                           ONLINE       0     0     0
            /zstorage/storage/zfstest/disk3  ONLINE       0     0     0
            /zstorage/storage/zfstest/disk4  ONLINE       0     0     0

Remove all snapshots

Remove all snapshots that contain the string auto:

zfs list -t snapshot -o name |grep auto | xargs -n 1 zfs destroy -r

Install beadm

At first I had to boot from USB stick and execute:

zpool import -f -o altroot=/mnt zroot
zfs set mountpoint=none zroot
zfs set mountpoint=/usr zroot/usr
zfs set mountpoint=/var zroot/var
zfs set mountpoint=/tmp zroot/tmp
zpool export zroot
reboot
cd /usr/ports/sysutils/beadm
make install clean
zfs snapshot zroot@beadm
zfs create -o compression=lz4 zroot/ROOT
zfs send zroot@beadm | zfs receive zroot/ROOT/default
mkdir /tmp/beadm_default
mount -t zfs zroot/ROOT/default /tmp/beadm_default
vi /tmp/beadm_default/boot/loader.conf

vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:zroot/ROOT/default"

zpool set bootfs=zroot/ROOT/default zroot
zfs get -r mountpoint zroot
reboot

Now we should have a system that can handle boot environments with beadm.

Type:

beadm list

BE      Active Mountpoint  Space Created
default NR     /            1.1G 2014-03-25 10:46

Now we remove old root:

mount -t zfs zroot /mnt/mnt/
cd /mnt/mnt
rm *
rm -Rf *
chflags -R noschg *
rm -R *
rm .*
cd /
umount /mnt/mnt

Protect the upgrade to version 10 with:

beadm create -e default freebsd-9.2-stable
beadm create -e default freebsd-10-stable
beadm activate freebsd-10-stable
reboot

Now you are in environment freebsd-10-stable and can to your upgrade. If anything fails, just switch the bootfs back to the environment your need.

Adjust sector to 4k

With the upgrade to FreeBSD10 I see now the error message:

        NAME                                            STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zroot                                           ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0                                      ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/504acf1f-5487-11e1-b3f1-001b217b3468  ONLINE       0     0     0  block size: 512B configured, 4096B native
            gpt/disk1                                   ONLINE       0     0   330  block size: 512B configured, 4096B native

We would like to allign the partitions to 4k sectors and recreate the zpool with 4k size without losing data or require to restore it from a backup. Type gpart show ada0 to see if partion allignment is fine. This is fine:

=>        34  3907029101  ada2  GPT  (1.8T)
          34           6        - free -  (3.0K)
          40         128     1  freebsd-boot  (64K)
         168     8388608     2  freebsd-swap  (4.0G)
     8388776  3898640352     3  freebsd-zfs  (1.8T)
  3907029128           7        - free -  (3.5K)

Create the partions as explained above, we will handle here only the steps how to convert the zpool to 4k size. Make sure you have a bootable usb stick with mfsbsd. Boot from it and try to mount your pool: Login with root and password mfsroot

zpool import -f -o altroot=/mnt zroot

If it can import your pool and see your data in /mnt you can reboot again and boot up the normal system. Now make a backup of your pool. If anything goes wrong you would need it. I used rsync to copy all important data to another pool where I had enough space for it. I had the problem that I had running zfs-snapshot-mgmt which stopped working with the new zfs layout with FreeBSD10 so I had at first to remove all auto snapshots as that will make it imposible to copy the pool (I had over 100000 snapshots on the system).

zfs list -H -t snapshot -o name |grep auto | xargs -n 1 zfs destroy -r

Detach one of the mirrors:

zpool detach zroot gptid/504acf1f-5487-11e1-b3f1-001b217b3468

My disk was named disk0 but it does not show up on /dev/gpt/disk0 so I had to reboot. As we removed the first disk it can be possible that you must say your BIOS to boot from the second harddisk. Clear ZFS label:

zpool labelclear /dev/gpt/disk0

Create gnop(8) device emulating 4k disk blocks:

gnop create -S 4096 /dev/gpt/disk0

Create a new single disk zpool named zroot1 using the gnop device as the vdev:

zpool create zroot1 gpt/disk0.nop

Export the zroot1:

zpool export zroot1

Destroy the gnop device:

gnop destroy /dev/gpt/disk0.nop

Reimport the zroot1 pool, searching for vdevs in /dev/gpt

zpool import -d /dev/gpt zroot1

Create a snapshot:

zfs snapshot -r zroot@transfer

Transfer the snapshot from zroot to zroot1, preserving every detail, without mounting the destination filesystems

zfs send -R zroot@transfer | zfs receive -duv zroot1

Verify that the zroot1 has indeed received all datasets

zfs list -r -t all zroot1

Now boot from the usbstick the mfsbsd. Import your pools:

zpool import -fN zroot
zpool import -fN zroot1

Make a second snapshot and copy it incremental:

zfs snapshot -r zroot@transfer2
zfs send -Ri zroot@transfer zroot@transfer2 | zfs receive -Fduv zroot1

Correct the bootfs option

zpool set bootfs=zroot1/ROOT/default zroot1

Edit the loader.conf:

mkdir -p /zroot1
mount -t zfs zroot1/ROOT/default /zroot1
vi /zroot1/boot/loader.conf
vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:zroot1/ROOT/default"

Destroy the old zroot

zpool destroy zroot

Reboot again into your new pool, make sure everything is mounted correctly. Attach the disk to the pool

zpool attach zroot1 gpt/disk0 gpt/disk1

I reinstalled the gpt bootloader, not necessary but I wanted to be sure a current version of it is on both disks:

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada1
gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada2

Wait while you allow the newly attached mirror to resilver completely. You can check the status with

zpool status zroot1

(with the old allignment it took me about 7 days for the resilver, with the 4k allignment now it takes only about 2 hours by a speed of about 90MB/s) After the pool finished you maybe want to remove the snapshots:

zfs destroy -r zroot1@transfer
zfs destroy -r zroot1@transfer2

!!!!! WARNING RENAME OF THE POOL FAILED AND ALL DATA IS LOST !!!!! If you want to rename the pool back to zroot boot again from the USB stick:

zpool import -fN zroot1 zroot

Edit the loader.conf:

mkdir -p /zroot
mount -t zfs zroot/ROOT/default /zroot1
vi /zroot/boot/loader.conf
vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:zroot/ROOT/default"

ZFS Standby Machine

We have a FreeBSD machine running with ZFS and we would like to have a standby machine available as KVM virtual client. The KVM DOM0 is running on an ubuntu server with virt-manager installed. As the DOM0 has already a raid running, we would not like to have a raid/mirror in the KVM guest.

At first we create a VG0 LVM group in virt-manager. Create several volumns to hold each pool you have on your FreeBSD server running.

Download the mfsbsd iso and copy it to /var/lib/kimchi/isos. Maybe you have to restart libvirt-bin to see the iso:

/etc/init.d/libvirt-bin restart

Create a new generic machine and attach the volumes to the MFSBSD machine.

After you booted the MFSBSD system, login with root and mfsroot, we would not like to have the system reachable from outside with the standard password:

passwd

Check if the harddisk are available with:

camcontrol devlist

You should see something like:

<QEMU HARDDSIK 2.0.0>            at scbus2 target 0 lun 0 (pass1,ada0)

We create the first harddisk. On the source execute:

gpart backup ada0
GPT 128
1   freebsd-boot        34       128 boot0
2   freebsd-swap       162   8388608 swap0
3    freebsd-zfs   8388770 968384365 disk0

Now we create the same structure on the target:

gpart create -s gpt ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 128 -t freebsd-boot -l boot ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 8388608 -t freebsd-swap -l swap ada0
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l root ada0
gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada0

Now we create the first pool:

zpool create zroot gpt/root

Repeat these steps for every pool you want to mirror.

For a storage pool:

gpart create -s gpt ada1
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l storage ada1
zpool create zstorage gpt/storage

Check that the pool are available with:

zpool status

Now we login on the host we would like to mirror. Create a snapshot with:

zfs snapshot -r zroot@snap1

and now transfer the snapshot to the standby machine with:

zfs send -R zroot@snap1 | ssh root@IP "zfs recv -vFdu zroot"

Too transfer later change data:

zfs snapshot -r zroot@snap2
zfs send -Ri zroot@snap1 zroot@snap2 | ssh root@IP "zfs recv -vFdu zroot"

Via Script

Make sure you can ssh into the target machine with public key machnism.

Use the following commands to automatically backup the pool zroot and zstorage:

#!/bin/sh -e
pools="zroot zstorage"
ip=x.x.x.x
user=root
 
for i in $pools; do
        echo Working on $i
        ssh ${user}@${ip} "zpool import -N ${i}"
 
        zfs snapshot -r ${i}@snap2
        zfs send -Ri ${i}@snap1 ${i}@snap2 | ssh ${user}@${ip} "zfs recv -vFdu ${i}"
        ssh ${user}@${ip} "zfs destroy -r ${i}@snap1"
        zfs destroy -r ${i}@snap1
        zfs snapshot -r ${i}@snap1
        zfs send -Ri ${i}@snap2 ${i}@snap1 | ssh ${user}@${ip} "zfs recv -vFdu ${i}"
        ssh ${user}@${ip} "zfs destroy -r ${i}@snap2"
        zfs destroy -r ${i}@snap2
 
        ssh ${user}@${ip} "zpool export ${i}"
done
 
exit 0

Rebuild directory structure

You maybe used a script to install FreeBSD and it has not created subdirectories for some directories we like, e.g.:

tank               1.25T   514G   144K  none
tank/root          1.24T   514G  1.14T  /
tank/root/tmp      1.16G   514G   200M  /tmp
tank/root/var      47.0G   514G  5.69G  /var
tank/swap          8.95G   519G  1.99G  -

We would like to create a new structure, copy the data there but we want a downtime of the system as short as possible. The system should also be prepared for beadm. So lets start.

At first we have to create the directory structure:

zfs create -uo mountpoint=none                                                 tank/ROOT
zfs create -uo mountpoint=/                                                    tank/ROOT/default
zfs create -uo mountpoint=/tmp -o compression=lz4   -o exec=on -o setuid=off   tank/tmp
chmod 1777 /mnt/tmp
 
zfs create -uo mountpoint=/usr                                                 tank/usr
zfs create -uo compression=lz4                   -o setuid=off                 tank/usr/home
zfs create -uo compression=lz4                                                 tank/usr/local
 
zfs create -uo compression=lz4                   -o setuid=off    tank/usr/ports
zfs create -u                     -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   tank/usr/ports/distfiles
zfs create -u                     -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   tank/usr/ports/packages
 
zfs create -uo compression=lz4     -o exec=off     -o setuid=off  tank/usr/src
zfs create -u                                                     tank/usr/obj
 
zfs create -uo mountpoint=/var                                    tank/var
zfs create -uo compression=lz4    -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   tank/var/crash
zfs create -u                     -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   tank/var/db
zfs create -uo compression=lz4    -o exec=on      -o setuid=off   tank/var/db/pkg
zfs create -u                     -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   tank/var/empty
zfs create -uo compression=lz4    -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   tank/var/log
zfs create -uo compression=lz4    -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   tank/var/mail
zfs create -u                     -o exec=off     -o setuid=off   tank/var/run
zfs create -uo compression=lz4    -o exec=on      -o setuid=off   tank/var/tmp

Boot ZFS vie EFI

To use EFI we need to add an additional partition of the efi to our boot harddiscs. Assumption, the current setup looks like:

=>      34  41942973  ada0  GPT  (20G)
        34       128     1  freebsd-boot  (64K)
       162   8388608     2  freebsd-swap  (4.0G)
   8388770  33554237     3  freebsd-zfs  (16G)

Shrink ZPOOL to have space for EFI partition with swap partition existing

We have already a pool in place with two harddisks:

  pool: zroot
 state: ONLINE
config:

        NAME                                            STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        zroot                                           ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0                                      ONLINE       0     0     0
            gptid/2730700d-6cac-11e3-8a76-000c29f004e1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/disk1                                   ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors

and swap

       Name    Status  Components
mirror/swap  COMPLETE  ada0p2 (ACTIVE)
                       ada1p2 (ACTIVE)

What we will do now is remove one harddisk from the pool, destroy the GPT table and recreate the partitions to contain an EFI partition. Make sure you have a backup at hand, because this can fail for any reason! As a pool cannot be reduced in size, we will lower the swap partition by 128MB.

Make sure, your swap is not used:

# swapinfo
Device          1K-blocks     Used    Avail Capacity
/dev/mirror/swap   4194300        0  4194300     0%

If your swap is used, reboot your system before you continue!

At first we remove the first disk from swap:

gmirror remove swap ada0p2
 
gmirror status
       Name    Status  Components
mirror/swap  COMPLETE  ada1p2 (ACTIVE)

Next the disc from the zpool:

zpool offline zroot gptid/2730700d-6cac-11e3-8a76-000c29f004e1

Next we delete all partitions:

gpart delete -i 3 ada0
gpart delete -i 2 ada0
gpart delete -i 1 ada0

Now we create new partions. The efi partition with 800k is big enough, but I will create it with 128MB to be absolutely sure to have enough space if I would like to boot other systems.

gpart add -a 4k -s 128M -t efi ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 64K -t freebsd-boot -l boot0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 3968M -t freebsd-swap -l swap0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l disk0 ada0

Now we have to destroy thw swap mirror:

swapoff /dev/mirror/swap
gmirror destroy swap

And create it again:

gmirror label -b prefer swap gpt/swap0

Add the disc to the zpool:

zpool replace zroot 15785559864543927985 gpt/disk0

Reinstall the old legacy boot loader if EFI fails:

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 2 ada0

Now wait for the pool to finish resilver process.

Reboot your system and make sure it is booting. If everything comes up again, just do the same for the second disc.

Shrink ZPOOL to have space for EFI partition with NO swap partition existing

Before you continue make sure you have done the migration to beadm described above!

Now we have the case, that the swap partion is part of the ZFS filesystem:

~> zfs list
NAME                                USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT
...
zroot/swap                          9.65G   482G  1.99G  -
...

~> swapinfo                                                                                          idefix@server
Device          1K-blocks     Used    Avail Capacity
/dev/zvol/tank/swap   4194304        0  4194304     0%

In this case it will be much more work and requires more time. Also the pool will change its name, as we have to copy it. Make sure your pool is not full, before you start, else you will not be able to copy the snapshot.

Destroy the first harddisk and recreate partitions:

zpool detach zroot gpt/disk0
gpart delete -i 2 ada0
gpart delete -i 1 ada0
gpart show ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 128M -t efi ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 64K -t freebsd-boot -l boot0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l disk0 ada0
gpart show ada0
gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 2 ada0

Create the new pool

zpool create -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache newzroot gpt/disk0

Create a snapshot and transfer it

zfs snapshot -r zroot@shrink
zfs send -vR zroot@shrink |zfs receive -vFdu newzroot

We have now the first copy in place. Now stop all service and make sure nothing important is changed on the harddisk anymore.

service .... stop
zfs snapshot -r zroot@shrink2
zfs send -vRi zroot@shrink zroot@shrink2 |zfs receive -vFdu newzroot
zfs destroy -r zroot@shrink
zfs destroy -r zroot@shrink2
zfs destroy -r newzroot@shrink
zfs destroy -r newzroot@shrink2

Make the new zpool bootable:

zpool set bootfs=newzroot/ROOT/default newzroot

Export and import while preserving cache:

mount -t zfs newzroot/ROOT/default /tmp/beadm_default
vi /tmp/beadm_default/boot/loader.conf
 
vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:newzroot/ROOT/default"
 
zfs get -r mountpoint newzroot
reboot

You must now boot from mfsBSD!

Warning, you will delete now the pool zroot, make sure the copy was really successfully finished!

You can also remove the harddisk physically from the server if you can and destroy the pool after you have verified data is ok from another computer before you put it back into this computer.

zpool import -f zroot
zpool status
zpool destroy zroot
zpool labelclear -f /dev/gpt/disk1
reboot

The system should now boot from the new pool, control that everything looks ok:

mount
zfs list
zpool status

If you would like to rename the new pool back to the old name boot again with mfsBSD!

zpool import -f -R /mnt newzroot zroot
zpool set bootfs=zroot/ROOT/default zroot
mount -t zfs zroot/ROOT/default /tmp
vi /tmp/boot/loader.conf
 
vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:zroot/ROOT/default"
 
reboot

Make sure the pool looks fine and has the new disk attached:

mount
zfs list
zpool status

Now we add the second harddisk again to the pool:

gpart delete -i 2 ada1
gpart delete -i 1 ada1
gpart show ada1
gpart add -a 4k -s 128M -t efi ada1
gpart add -a 4k -s 64K -t freebsd-boot -l boot1 ada1
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l disk1 ada1
gpart show ada1
gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 2 ada1
zpool attach zroot gpt/disk0 gpt/disk1

Start to install EFI bootloader

The earliest version of FreeBSD that can boot a ZFS root is FreeBSD 10.3! Make sure you are not trying it with an older version, it will not work.

You will not destroy your data, because we have the old legacy boot in place, but EFI will not work. You can try to use the efi loader from a self compiled 10.3 or 11 FreeBSD and just copy there the loader.efi to the efi partition.

To test it, I downloaded the base.txz from ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/amd64/amd64/11.0-CURRENT/ and extracted from there the loader.efi.

newfs_msdos ada0p1
newfs_msdos ada1p1
mount -t msdosfs /dev/ada0p1 /mnt
mkdir -p /mnt/efi/boot/
cp loader-zfs.efi /mnt/efi/boot/BOOTx64.efi
mkdir -p /mnt/boot
cat > /mnt/boot/loader.rc << EOF
unload
set currdev=zfs:zroot/ROOT/default:
load boot/kernel/kernel
load boot/kernel/zfs.ko
autoboot
EOF
(cd /mnt && find .)
.
./efi
./efi/boot
./efi/boot/BOOTx64.efi
./boot
./boot/loader.rc
umount /mnt
 
mount -t msdosfs /dev/ada0p1 /mnt
mkdir -p /mnt/efi/boot/
cp loader-zfs.efi /mnt/efi/boot/BOOTx64.efi
mkdir -p /mnt/boot
cat > /mnt/boot/loader.rc << EOF
unload
set currdev=zfs:zroot/ROOT/default:
load boot/kernel/kernel
load boot/kernel/zfs.ko
autoboot
EOF
(cd /mnt && find .)
.
./efi
./efi/boot
./efi/boot/BOOTx64.efi
./boot
./boot/loader.rc
umount /mnt

Fix problem not enough space for bootcode

With FreeBSD 11 it seems that the bootcode requires more space than the 64kb used in the past. If you try to install the new bootcode by:

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada0
gpart: /dev/ada0p1: not enough space

So we have to rearrange the partitions a little bit. I will increase the boot partition to 256kb and also create an EFI partion to be later able to boot via EFI.

I expect that you have your boot zpool running as mirror so we can remove one disk, repartitions it and copy the old pool to the new one.

So lets start:

zpool status tank
  pool: tank
 state: ONLINE
  scan: scrub repaired 0 in 17h49m with 0 errors on Fri Jan 22 09:12:29 2016
config:
 
        NAME            STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        tank            ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0      ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/zroot1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/zroot0  ONLINE       0     0     0
 
gpart show ada0
=>        34  3907029101  ada0  GPT  (1.8T)
          34           6        - free -  (3.0K)
          40         128     1  freebsd-boot  (64K)
         168  3907028960     2  freebsd-zfs  (1.8T)
  3907029128           7        - free -  (3.5K)
 
gpart show -l ada0
=>        34  3907029101  ada0  GPT  (1.8T)
          34           6        - free -  (3.0K)
          40         128     1  boot0  (64K)
         168  3907028960     2  zroot0  (1.8T)
  3907029128           7        - free -  (3.5K)

Remove the first disk:

zpool offline tank gpt/zroot0

Delete all partitions:

gpart delete -i 2 ada0
gpart delete -i 1 ada0

Create new partitions:

gpart add -a 4k -s 128M -t efi ada0
gpart add -a 4k -s 256K -t freebsd-boot -l boot0 ada0
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l zroot0 ada0

Now we directly place the boot code into the new partition:

gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 2 ada0

Now we create a new pool, I use here the possibility to rename the pool to zroot again.

zpool create zroot gpt/zroot0

Now we create a snapshot and copy it to the new pool:

zfs snapshot -r tank@snap1
zfs send -Rv tank@snap1 | zfs receive -vFdu zroot

If the copy process is done stop all services and do an incremental copy process:

cd /usr/local/etc/rc.d
ls | xargs -n 1 -J % service % stop
zfs snapshot -r tank@snap2
zfs send -Rvi tank@snap1 tank@snap2 | zfs receive -vFdu zroot

We must modify some additional data:

zpool export zroot
zpool import -f -o altroot=/mnt -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache -d /dev/gpt zroot
mount -t zfs zroot/root /mnt
cd /mnt/boot
sed -i '' s/tank/zroot/ loader.conf
zpool set bootfs=zroot/root zroot 
rm /mnt/boot/zfs/zpool.cache

Reboot into the new pool:

reboot

Now we destroy the second harddisk, recreate partitions and add is as mirror to the new pool:

gpart delete -i 2 ada1
gpart delete -i 1 ada1
gpart add -a 4k -s 128M -t efi ada1
gpart add -a 4k -s 256K -t freebsd-boot -l boot1 ada1
gpart add -a 4k -t freebsd-zfs -l zroot1 ada1
gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 2 ada1
zpool attach zroot gpt/zroot0 gpt/zroot1

Make sure you import all your other existing pools again:

zpool import -f zstorage
...

Have fun.

Replace Discs with Bigger Ones

Not verified:

$ zpool set autoexpand=on tank
$ zpool replace tank /dev/sdb /dev/sdd # replace sdb with temporary
installed sdd
$ zpool status -v tank # wait for the replacement to be finished
$ zpool replace tank /dev/sdc /dev/sde # replace sdc with temporary
installed sde
$ zpool status -v tank # wait for the replacement to be finished
$ zpool export tank
$ zpool import tank
$ zpool online -e tank /dev/sdd
$ zpool online -e tank /dev/sde
$ zpool export tank
$ zpool import tank
freebsd/zfs.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2017/03/02 07:59 (Externe Bearbeitung)